The high quality of chemical products is determined by the concentration of thae basic substance in them. Materials containing the maximum amount of basic substances and a minimun of impurities are considered to be products of the highest and first grade. Composition and properties, must meet the requirements set out in the relevant state stands. Depending on the requirements, several standards may exist for products of manufacturing process, but their stipulations must allow them to be complied with in the given manufacturing process.
The outlay of an enterprise directly associated with the manufacture of products is called the industrial cost that consists of
(1) raw material, semifinished or intermediate products and the basic material directly participating in chemical reaction.
(2) fuel and power for technological purposes.
(3) wages of the basic production workers.
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Raw materials are defied to be the natural materials and semiproducts used in the manufacture of industrial products. The raw materials are among the main elements determining to a considerable extent the production technology, the quality and cost of the products. The demands of the developing chemical industry for diverse available and cheap raw materials constantly make it necessary to introduce new kinds of raw materials into the manufacturing process. Semiproducts or the residues of other enterprises are used to manufacture a number of chemical materials. Both the raw materials and the products must meet definite requirements corresponding to the relevant state standards.
The material are classified according to a variety of features: their chemical composition (inorganic and organic), their original (mineral, vegetative, and animal), and their state of aggrefation (solid liquid and gaseous) Read the rest of this entry »
The chemical industry is developing at a considerably higher rate than other industries. Modern chemical enterprises are intricate combinations of various chemical plants united by the comprehensive utilization of the raw materials or the preparation of various intermediates needed for the production of a commercial product.
In addition to purely chemical enterprises, plants of many other branches of industry are based on chemical technology principles. Numerous productions processed in the metallurgical, pulp and paper, textile, food, refrigerating, pharmaceutical, motion picture industries and photographic are purely chemical ones. Read the rest of this entry »